**Under-graduate Courses** **Optics Laboratory**

- Interference from nearly monochromatic– (Laser) and pseudomonochromatic– (spectral lamps Na, Hg, He, etc.) and natural light–sources (incandescent lamps) by using specific interferometry setups (Lloyd, Newton, Michelson – theory of partial coherence of light -)

- Fraunhofer- and Fresnel- diffraction from monochromatic and natural light sources with various diaphragms, (circular- and rectangular- apertures, single- and many- slits, gratings) using various diffractometry setups. Determination of the spectral lines wavelength by using grating diffractometers

- Production, analysis and detection of various states of polarization (linear- , circular- , elliptic – polarized light) and their application to the phenomena of reflection and refraction. A large part of the experiments is dedicated to crystal optics and specifically to the phenomena of double refraction of light, with the help Iceland spar.

- Are studied the basic laws of geometrical optics (rectilinear propagation, reflection, refraction) as key applications and function in lens present in various optical systems (optical diopter , prisms , thin -, thick – , converging- and diverging – lens systems , aberrations)

- It is studied the phenomenon of light dispersion by prism (via spectroscopic setups) and its interpretation on the bases of the refractive index atomic model as well as the effect of the thickness (Beer’s law) and spectral distribution of incident beam on the absorption spectrum.

https://www.physics.auth.gr/courses/154 https://www.physics.auth.gr/en/courses/154

**Physics II (Heat – Thermodynamics)**

Heat, temperature. Thermometers, the ideal gas temperature scale. Reversible and irreversible process. Ideal gasses, equation of state, thermal motion of molecules, the Maxwell distribution. The Van der Waals gas. The first law of thermodynamics, work, heat, heat capacity calorimetry. Processes of an ideal gas. Second law of thermodynamics. Heat engines, Carnot cycle. Absolute thermodynamic temperature scale. Entropy. Electric charge, Coulomb’s law, electric field. Gauss’s theorem. Conductors, capacity, capacitors. Dielectrics, the electric displacement vector. Electric current, electromotive force, Ohm’s law, resistance. Electric circuits, energy and power of current. Multiloop circuits. Kirchhoff’s rules. RC-circuit. Magnetic field. The Biot-Savart law. Interaction of currents, definition of the unit Ampere. The Lorentz force. Gauss’s law, Ampere’s law. Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction. Equivalent electric field. Induced E.M.F. by a time-varying magnetic field. Self-induction, mutual induction. Time-varying electric field, displacement current. Maxwell’s equations in the integral form.

https://www.physics.auth.gr/en/courses/9

**Introductory Physics Laboratory** a) Features of measuring instruments and methodologies of measurement. Statistical treatment of experimental data b) Graphing techniques for 2 variables, treatment of experimental data, least-squares algorithm. II a) Online measurement of velocity and acceleration on a rectilinear air track using a computer b) Simulation of the x-y trajectory of a sphere in various environments using a computer c) Introduction to electrical measurements, DC instruments and their modifications d) Introduction to the oscilloscope and AC measurements. e) Cooling of systems in constant temperature environment and measurement of specific heat capacity. f) Introduction to wave phenomena using ultrasound devices.

https://www.physics.auth.gr/en/courses/66